202 – Advanced Asma wa Sifaat

Bad News – Blog Closing, Good News—

Posted on October 1, 2007. Filed under: 202 - Advanced Asma wa Sifaat |

we are officially moved to saheefah.org. please go there to find all the articles that were here, and much more to come inshallah.

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Use of ‘Aql (ad-Darimi)

Posted on February 28, 2007. Filed under: 202 - Advanced Asma wa Sifaat |

Imām `Uthmān b. Sa`īd al-Dārimī states in al-Radd `Alā al-Jahmīyyah:

Some of them have said, “No, we base our view on the rational (ma`qūl).”

We say: it is here that you have strayed from the right path and fallen into misguidance from which you have no escape, for reason (ma`qūl) is not a monolithic entity with uniformly defined limits for all people such that it would be sufficient. If such were the case, it would be a relief for the people and we would also base our view upon it and go no further. In that case, Allāh would not have said:

“Each sect rejoices in what it has.” [Al-Mu’minūn:53]

Thus, we find that according to each group, the “rational” (ma`qūl) is that which they are upon while that which opposes them they regard to be “irrational” (majhūl). Consequently, O assembly of Jahmīs, we find your factions to be in dispute as to what is “rational”. Each faction amongst you claims that reason is with it and that is calling to it, while that which opposes it is irrational. Thus, having seen that “reason” is disputed amongst us and you and all the People of Desires, we have not been able to find a precise definition for it in all things. Consequently, we hold that the most guided way is to refer all manners of reasoning to the order of Allāh’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and to that which was considered rational by his Companions and was well-known amongst them, because it was in their midst that the revelation would descend. Hence, they are more knowledgeable of its meanings than you or us. Furthermore, they were in agreement about the fundamentals of the religion (Usūl al-Dīn). They did not divide into factions concerning them, innovations did not appear amongst them nor desires which lead one astray from the path.

Hence, in our view, the rational is that which corresponds with their guidance and the irrational is that which opposed them. Furthermore, there is no way to know their guidance and their way except by these Āthār, and you have detached yourself from them and claim to select only some of them, so how can you be guided?

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God Speaks with a Voice

Posted on February 11, 2007. Filed under: 202 - Advanced Asma wa Sifaat |

77. As far his doctrine with regard to the disputed question of the Quran, its discussions may be dealt with in two sections. The first one treats of the divine voice which he began by denying. Our answer to this denial is as follows: It has been established that Moses heard the words of God from God Himself without any intermediary. Indeed, if he had heard it from a tree or a stone or an angel, then the Israelites would have been superior to him in this regard; for they had heard it from Moses, the Prophet of God, and Moses is superior to the tree and the stone. Why then was Moses given the epithet of “he who is spoken to by God”? And why did God say: “O Moses! I have chosen thee above the people with My messages and My speaking to thee”[7:144]? and again: “When he came to it, he was called to: ’Moses! I am thy Lord.”[20:11] Now no one would say this to him except God.

78. Since this is certain, then the divine voice is that which was heard, and of which the audibility is feasible. Furthermore, reference to the divine voice has been explicitly made in the traditions which have come to us. ’Abd Allah, son of the Imam Ahmad, has said: “I once said to my father: ’Father, the Jahmiyya claim that God does not speak by uttering a voice.’ He replied: ’They lie; they simply occupy themselves with the science of divesting God of His attributes.’ Then he said: ’I heard ’Abd ar-Rahman b. Muhammad al-Muharibi, who had it on the authority of Sulayman b. Mihran al-A’mash, on the authority of Abu al-Duha, on the authority of Masruq, on the authority of ’Abd Allah, say: ’When God gives utterance to revelation, the people of heaven hear His voice.’ “[58] al-Sijzi has said: Among the relators of this tradition there is not a single Imam who is not approved; and it has been related with a chain of transmitters going back to the Apostle of God.

79. In the tradition transmitted by ’Abd Allah b. Unays, it is related that God will call to the people on the Day of Resurrection with a voice which will be heard by him who is far as well as by him who is near: “I am the King! I am the

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Equal Treatment of Heretical Adversaries and Co-Madhabists

Posted on February 1, 2007. Filed under: 202 - Advanced Asma wa Sifaat |

76. As for his statement, “you have accused your adversaries of heretical innovation with regard to these principles, but made it allowable for your companions to have different views with regard to them,” it is falsehood and calumny. We do not permit anyone to oppose the Sunna, no matter who he may be; and if he be one of our companions, we are more severe in our reproval of him than would be the case with another. The proof of this is that you are ascribed to our companions, and our Imam. Now when the present doctrines proceeded from you, we accused you of heretical innovation. Our companions abandoned you, and made lawful the shedding of your blood. Were it not for your retractation and reversion, we would certainly have been more severe with you, and held you further away from us. We do not accuse anyone of heretical innovation except him whom the Sunna has so accused; nor do we say anything on our own authority. But the Prophet has said: “Every innovation is a heretical innovation, and every heretical innovation is an error.”[57] Therefore, he who introduces innovations into the religion contrary to that which has come to us on the authority of the Prophet, differs from his Companions, deserts the religious doctrines of the Imams and jurisprudents, reverts to the doctrine of the speculative theologians, and urges opposition to the Sunna, is indeed guilty of having perpetrated heretical innovations. God is his reckoner and punisher; if He so wills, He will turn towards him in forgiveness; then again, if He so wills, He will cause him to go astray. And the saying of God, “I will assuredly fill Hell with jinn and men together,”[11:119] becomes necessitated, as suitable to the requirements of justice, to take effect upon him. God does what he wills.

Footnotes

[57] Sahih. Refer to fn. 25

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Meanings of Attributes

Posted on February 1, 2007. Filed under: 202 - Advanced Asma wa Sifaat |

74. He says to us: “Speak up and tell us what appears to you to be the meaning of these expressions revealed in connection with the divine attributes!” Now this fellow was indeed hasty in feigning ignorance and blindness of mind, as though he really were not familiar with the creed of the people of the Sunna and their doctrines concerning these expressions. These doctrines are also his, since he had been brought up among the adherents to these expressions, and knew their teachings with regard to them.

75. Many a time did he himself expound the doctrine of the people of the Sunna with regard to this question, and make clear the truth with regard to it after he had retracted the present discourse; and many a time did he himself show that if anyone should ask us about the intended meaning of expressions regarding the divine attributes, our answer should be: “We (more…)

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On Akhbar Ahad

Posted on January 31, 2007. Filed under: 202 - Advanced Asma wa Sifaat |

66. He states that “the rejection of traditions is obligatory because they are traditions transmitted by a single traditionist (akhbar ahad)” and that “the decisive rejection of tashbih and tamthil-anthropomorphism has been firmly established by rational proofs.” As for the former statement, there are two ways of answering it:
67. First, by clearly showing that it is obligatory to accept these traditions for two reasons. First, (more…)

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On Ijtihaad in Beliefs

Posted on January 31, 2007. Filed under: 202 - Advanced Asma wa Sifaat |

43. Should he say, “you were ordered only to make use of ijtihad and to refer to that which is established by proof; you were forbidden to make use of the censured taqlid;” we would say in return: there are various answers to this objection. First, the freedom of the method of the Salaf from evils of any kind, and the soundness of its argument, has already been firmly established by decisive proof on the basis of the Quran, the Sunna, and the consensus (ijma’). There is therefore no need for discovering its soundness by some other proof. Secondly, this doctrine imposes an obligation upon the common people to make use of ijtihad in the minutiae of daily affairs and religious beliefs; and this is wrong for several reasons.
44. First, it entails accusing the Apostle of God of a fault of omission; for the Prophet did not (more…)

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Tawheed in the Year 279 A.H

Posted on January 22, 2007. Filed under: 202 - Advanced Asma wa Sifaat |

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

All praise is due to Allah, and may He make mention of His Messenger, and grant him peace.

In his famous Jami`, more popularly known simply as “Sunan at-Tirmidhi” Imam at-Tirmidhi, who died in the year 279 after Hijrah, lists the following authentic narration (no. 662):

“Abu Hurairah narrated that Allah’s Messenger (sall Allahu `alaihi wa sallam) said:

‘Indeed Allah accepts charity, and He accepts it with His Right (Hand) to nurture it for one of you, just like one of you would nurture his foal, until the bite (of food) becomes as large as Uhud.’ The Book of Allah, the Mighty and Sublime testifies to that: (He accepts repentance from His worshippers, and accepts charity.) [At-Tawbah 9:104.] And: (Allah will destroy ribaa and will give increase for charity.) [Al-Baqarah 2:276.]”

[Abu ‘Isa] said:

This hadith is [hasan] sahih. It has been reported from ‘Aishah from the Prophet (sall Allahu `alaihi wa sallam) similarly.

More than one of the people of knowledge have spoken about this hadith, and the narrations that resemble it about the Attributes and the Descent of the Lord, Blessed and Most High, every night to the lowest Heaven.

They said: ‘The narrations about these are (more…)

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On Taqlid in beliefs

Posted on January 6, 2007. Filed under: 202 - Advanced Asma wa Sifaat |

28. As for this statement of his, “The stupid person is he who is deceived by his Salaf and relies upon the doctrines of his professors, trustful in following their authority without examining their doctrines,” it consists of venomous, vicious words with which he allusively censures following the path of the pious Salaf, finding fault with what our lmams have praised and enjoined us to do; namely, to adhere to their path and be guided by their mode of life. On the other hand, he summons to the doctrines of the partisans of speculative theology, and to the study of sciences founded on reason; namely, the science of speculative theology, the censure of which we have already mentioned on the authority of the Imams, and its leading of its partisan to the states of zandaqa, heretical innovation and the total lack of prosperity. The evidence of what the Imams have said is manifest in Ibn ’Aqil’s case. For since he devoted himself to it and preferred it to the science of tradition, he became a zindiq urging others to cease following the Salaf whose orthodoxy and right guidance are matters of general agreement, whom God has revealed His being satisfied with them and His having chosen them. He has also praised and commended them. Now sufficing you are those who have been praised and commended by God, and the accounts of those whom the Prophet has recommended, urging men to follow them and be guided by their example.

29. Moreover, our Imams (more…)

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The position of the Salaf on Speculative Theology – ’ilm al-kalam

Posted on January 6, 2007. Filed under: 202 - Advanced Asma wa Sifaat |

24. We, then, are the authors of excellent exhortations; to us belongs the glory of this world and the next. He who looks into the books which learned men have devoted to the praise of God’s friends, will find mention there only of our kind. When relations of miracles are transmitted, they are transmitted only as proceeding from us; and when a preacher, or any other learned person, wishes to render his exhortation pleasing and embellish it, he does so by relating the lives of some of our ascetics, or the miracles of our devotees, or the portraits of our learned men. And at the mention of our pious, the mercy of God settles upon men, hearts become calm, prayers are answered, and afflictions are removed. What a gifted poet was he who said: (more…)

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